NECO Human and Regional Geography (Essay) Answers [7th August 2021]

NECO

2021 NECO HUMAN & REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY (GEOGRAPHY II) ESSAY / THEORY ANSWERS:

Saturday 7th August, 2021
Paper II: Essay – Human and Regional Geography – 3:00pm – 5:00pm

(1a)
(Pick Any Three)
(i) Rural-Urban migration: This is the movement of people from rural areas, eg village to urban centres like Ibadan,Lagos etc

(ii) Rural-rural movement: This is the movement of people from one rural area to another rural area

(iii) Urban-rural migration: This is the movement of people from one urban centre to rural areas

(iv) Urban – Urban migration: This is the movement of people from one urban centre(town or city) to another.

 

(v) Seasonal migration: This is the movement of people from one place to another at a particular season e.g summer holiday abroad.

(1b)
ADVANTAGES:
(Pick Any Four)
(i) It reduces population pressure on agricultural land at the source region
(ii) It reduces population pressure on social amenities at the source region

(iii) It supplies migrant labour at the receiving region

(iv) It ensures the flow of capital to the receiving region .

(v) It leads to the development of social amenities at the receiving region
(vi) It promotes cultural Integration, such as inter marriage at the receiving region

DISADVANTAGES
(Pick Any Four)
(i) It breads social vices like crime and armed robbery at the receiving region.
(ii) It increases high cost of living at the receiving region

(iii) It leads to pressure on social amenities at the receiving region
(iv) It leads to the loss of able – bodied men and youth at the source region
(v) It leads to congestion in housing and transportation at the receiving region

(vi) It leads to decline in production at the source region
(vii) It leads to cultural disintegration at the destination region

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(3a)
(i) U.S.A
(ii) Brazil
(iiii) China

(3bi)
U.S.A:
(i) Crude oil
(ii) Cocoa
(iii) Lead

(3bii)
(i) Vehicles
(ii) Electrical and electronic equipment

(3c)
(i) Differences in Factor Endowment: Countries are endowed differently e.g. differences in climate and soil, differences in availability of natural resources, differences in capital endowment and differences in labour skills. These differences translate into differences in the abilities of countries to produce goods and services. Some countries, because of their factor endowments, can produce certain goods cheaper than other countries.

(ii) Differences in Technology: Advantageous trade can occur between countries if the countries differ in their technological abilities to produce goods and services. Technology refers to the techniques used to turn resources (labor, capital, land) into outputs (goods and services).

(iii) Existence of Economies of Scale in Production: With specialisation and production on a larger scale than may be possible domestically, a country may be able to gain more economies of scale. This will lead to lower average costs and benefit consumers through lower prices.

(iv) Differences in Demand: Advantageous trade can occur between countries if demands or preferences differ between countries. Individuals in different countries may have different preferences or demands for various products. For example, the Chinese are likely to demand more rice than Americans, even if consumers face the same price.

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